Iran was the first wake-up call. They went farther than China was every willing to go by severely throttling SSL specifically. This was really a smart move because it didn't slow down the ability to read pages on the Internet, as most are unencrypted. It did slow down Tor and the ability to log in to any sites that use SSL for logins (hopefully all of them at this point). Since logins are required for most publishing services such as email, Twitter, Facebook, etc., this throttled both the ability to send information out. Of course online commerce was affected, but they were willing to accept that. The Iran attack became the new gold standard in online censorship. All systems need to adapt to this new reality. Since SSL is now a target, SSL is no longer a good wrapper for traffic. This is why I started Dust, to provide a more modern transport layer for bypassing current censorship methods. I really believe we can make something which is undetectable and thus cannot be throttled or blocked. I think information theory is on our side here and that this is a war we can win.
However, Egypt raised the bar yet again by simply unplugging the Internet. This is remarkable as it not only shows how much farther censors are willing to go now, but also how the nature of online freedom of speech has changed. One of the classic examples we used to use to discuss the purpose of Freeenet was that China blocked access to CNN. This seems like a comically naive goal now. People aren't trying to access news from major publishers. They're organizing protests via Twitter. This is totally decentralized content, it's peer-to-peer communication.
Unfortunately, this isn't a software fix. If the cables aren't plugged in, there's no clever ways we can encode the data to get it past the censors. This particular situation is a hardware problem. The infrastructure is centralized in such a way that it's easy for the government of a country to just switch it off and so this is what happened. Some respected individuals have called for the building of a new Internet without these problems.
I think this is a very noble endeavor, but I want to be straight with you about the problems with this idea. Essentially, we've tried this and it doesn't work. We've been trying this for ten years. Building an Internet out of Wifi mesh points is like wiring a city for electricity using USB cables. The 3G and 4G wireless Internet that we have now is connected by a high speed wired backbone and this is what makes it work well. There are many problems with a entirely mesh network, but the primary one is range. Once you start looking at coverage areas and doing the math you quickly discover that the number of mesh nodes required to cover any decent areas is astronomical, particularly because you need to connect out to the larger Internet either by crossing the border to a friendly nation or connecting to a satellite link.
There is something we can do, though. We can design a custom network for these situations which, while it doesn't connect to the general Internet, provides network connectivity to people on the ground with each other. Here's a brief overview of my design:
Femtocells are superior to Wifi access points here. The computing device of choice is going to be the camera and GPS-equipped phone, not the laptop. Phones are used to drifting from tower to tower. They have hand-off protocols for switching towers seamlessly. That's why you can talk on the phone while driving down the highway. A femtocell is essentially a "fake" cellular phone tower that intercepts your phone signals and routes them over your own network connection instead of the phone company backbone. You normally get these to improve reception in areas with poor or non-existent tower coverage. Places like, for instance, Egypt right now.
My proposal is to combine portable, battery-powered femtocells with a custom backend that, instead of routing your data packets over an ethernet connection, stores the data for exchange on a store-and-forward mesh network, much as in the FidoNet network referred to in the Rushkoff article. Then, instead of having fixed towers and moving phones we have moving towers.
This is all kind of technical, I suppose, so let me break it down for you in terms of a use case. You're in Egypt and you want to get news about what's going on, send out videos of important happenings to the world, and organize with your fellow citizens to take political action. You have a phone with a camera and text and MMS messaging. There are mobile cell phone towers roaming around the city. (This is something you'd need to organize and is a whole issue in itself, but some people specialize in this kind of theory. It's solvable.) When you come in range of an access point, you can send text and MMS messages. You also receive any that have been sent to you. The access point is actually another citizen with a backpack femtocell and battery. They could be walking, although I've also seen a similar plan executed using motorcycles. The tower stores your sent messages. The towers move in such a pattern that they come into range of each other. At this point they exchange stored messages. When a tower comes in range of a phone for which it has stored messages, it sends them to the phone and then deletes them. Sending messages to people in your phone contact list works the same as always. Getting information out of the country just requires sending a text or MMS message to someone that is known to have a satellite, dial-up, or other link outside. Once the information moves through the mesh to them, they can send it on.
I think this is the right way to do decentralized mesh networking in situations like what is happening now in Egypt. This is something we can build right now. I'm ready to start on this whenever you are. The first step is that we're going to need some femtocells. After that, it becomes a software problem again, like hacking a Wifi router to run OpenWRT.
If this is a topic you're interested in, I will be giving a talk about this on March 11 at the Dorkbot SXSW event: The Vision of the Future: 2021. Come by and say hi and we can figure out how to make this happen.